Great Britain, also referred to as the UK, Britain, or even England, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain, which is made up of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, is the unit of the United Kingdom. London, the capital of England, serves as the capital city of the United Kingdom. The capital cities of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are respectively Edinburgh, Belfast, and Cardiff. Although Welsh, Scots, and Gaelic are also recognised as official languages, English is the language spoken across the United Kingdom.
The political structure of Britain has evolved over many centuries. A council of nobility and religious figures used to advise monarchs. Eventually, this council grew into the Parliament, which currently implements every law in the nation. The monarch of today, who may be either a king or a queen, has no actual authority.
For over five centuries, the United Kingdom has been a prominent trade nation. British industry contributed to the nation's rise to global dominance in the 19th century. Its economy continues to be among the strongest on the planet. A large portion of the United Kingdom's north and west are made up of mountainous terrain with sharply raised mountains that are divided by large valleys. During the last Ice Age, when the area was covered in heavy glaciers, this topography was formed.
The landscape in the south of England is primarily made up of undulating hills. Numerous lakes, often known as lochs, can be found throughout the Scottish Highlands and northwest England. When the glaciers of the Ice Age melted, they were left behind. Some of them are rather deep, and they are often long and narrow. There are legends of a gigantic creature named Nessie that resides in Scotland's Loch Ness.